Marathon Swimming Nutrition – Index of Articles

Marathon Swimming Nutrition – Index of Articles

I’ve written a variety of posts over the last few years on nutritional considerations in marathon swimming. Here they are in one place for your reference.


Series: The Art & Science of Marathon Swimming Nutrition

On Recovery Drinks – includes a DIY powdered recovery drink recipe

On Maltodextrin – Maxim vs. Carbo Pro

Series: On Nutritional Science in Marathon Swimming

On Peter Attia’s nutrition webinar

Marathon swimming and low-carbohydrate diets

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Marathon Swimming Nutrition: Do it yourself

Marathon Swimming Nutrition: Do it yourself

The last in a series of four posts about nutrition in marathon swimming. To recap:

  • Marathon swimming nutrition is both art and science. There are both “best practices” (generalizable to many) and “special sauce” (generalizable to few). In general, a nutrition plan that aims to drink some carbs — not too much is a good place to start.
  • Some carbohydrates are “better” than others, due to differences in osmolality. An endurance athlete can consume more carbohydrate in the form of maltodextrin, compared to simple sugars, without overwhelming the digestive system. Also, maltodextrin is neutral in taste, thus providing more control over your drink’s flavor.
  • Of the many designer endurance fuels on the market, few are ideal for marathon swimming. High electrolyte content makes sense for runners, cyclists, and triathletes – but less sense for swimmers (even less sense for ocean swimmers).

Although I do think Perpetuem is a good product for swimmers, my best advice is to skip the one-size-fits all formulas and do it yourself. This is the only way to ensure you get the nutrition you need on a marathon swim, and not the stuff you don’t need.…

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Marathon Swimming Nutrition: A product comparison

Marathon Swimming Nutrition: A product comparison

I hope you’ve enjoyed “Nutrition Week” here at Freshwater Swimmer. As you may have noticed, I’ve been vague about recommending specific products. There’s a reason for that: I don’t believe there’s any single best nutrition plan for all people, in all situations. However, I’ve personally tried a number of sports drink products, and will share my thoughts on them.

Beginning with the low-end market… These products include, but are not limited to: Gatorade, Powerade, and Vitamin Water. Some signs you might be buying one of these products:

  • You can buy it in supermarkets and gas stations
  • It is brightly colored
  • Produced by a subsidiary of a Fortune 500 company, such as Coca-Cola or PepsiCo
  • Advertised on national television and/or billboards
  • Has a flashy, Javascript-heavy website that contains very little actual information.
  • Ingredients lists may be difficult to find. When you do find one, it’s often extensive and includes strange additives like “xanthan gum” and “brominated vegetable oil.”
  • Most relevant to endurance athletes: The primary carbohydrate source is a simple sugar such as sucrose, dextrose, or high-fructose corn syrup (or a combination).


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Marathon Swimming Nutrition: Osmolality and why it matters

Marathon Swimming Nutrition: Osmolality and why it matters

On a sunny late morning in Chicago last summer, I told Ted Erikson about the nutrition plan I’d recently used for Tampa and MIMS. Ted EriksonMy plan called for an hourly cycle of two Maxim feeds and one Perpetuem feed. Ted sort of chuckled, and then said something I’ll never forget: “You know, Evan… all you really need is glucose.”

And he’s right: Glucose is the basic unit of energy. Whether you feed on Gatorade or Maxim, it all ends up as glucose anyway. I mention this story because it’s worth remembering as you read what follows. When I said in the previous post that “some carbs are better than others,” I don’t mean that maltodextrin is the be-all-end-all, magical elixir of marathon swimming. It’s not. Many swimmers – including some of the best – have used “simple sugars” to fuel a marathon swim. You can, too!

However, it’s my view (based on both research and experience) that the basic recommendation to an aspiring marathon swimmer – in the absence of strong preferences otherwise – should be a maltodextrin-based fuel. 

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Marathon Swimming Nutrition: Art vs. Science

Marathon Swimming Nutrition: Art vs. Science

First, a Michael Pollan-inspired minimalist manifesto:

  1. Drink some carbs.
  2. Not too much.
  3. Some carbs are better than others.

One of the most daunting and mysterious aspects of preparing for a marathon swim is planning a nutrition strategy. And for good reason: Nutrition can make or break a marathon swim.

So, aspiring marathon swimmers often seek advice from their more experienced brethren. But how to sort through conflicting information and opinions?

The textbooks aren’t much better:

  • In Dover Solo, Marcia Cleveland recommends “warm, energy-providing liquids, followed possibly by some solid food, or energy gel.”
  • Steven Munatones’ book suggests to “try everything within reason: energy drinks, bananas, sliced peaches, chocolate, and cookies.” He also wisely notes that “what works for another swimmer may not necessarily work for you.”
  • Penny Lee Dean devotes a section to nutrition in her book, but in 2012 her recommendations are a bit dated.


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Marathon swimming and low-carbohydrate diets

Marathon swimming and low-carbohydrate diets

Following up my previous post on channel swimmer/physician Peter Attia’s webinar about “Nutrition for Open Water Swimming”…

Peter Attia

As you may have heard, the topic of the webinar (and subsequent video interviews with Open Water Source) was broader than the title indicates. In marathon swimming, “nutrition” typically refers to the stuff consumed during a swim to provide energy. But Dr. Attia was more interested in what people eat when they’re not swimming – i.e., diet.

If I could summarize his point, it would be this: Endurance athletes are asking the wrong question. Sure, Maxim is probably better than Gatorade during a swim. But the more important issue is: How best to train our metabolism through diet so it will most efficiently convert fuel into energy. According to Peter (who now has a blog), the ideal solution is a ketogenic diet.

The ketogenic diet is a type of low-carbohydrate diet that restricts carb intake so severely (less than 60 grams per day – equivalent to a small-ish bowl of pasta) that the body is forced to burn fat for energy instead of the “easy” glucose offered by carbohydrates.…

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On Peter Attia’s nutrition webinar

On Peter Attia’s nutrition webinar

Yesterday Open Water Source hosted a fascinating web-presentation by Peter Attia, a physician and Catalina Channel solo swimmer. The topic: Nutrition for Open-Water Swimming. Right up my alley, to say the least! There’s good news and bad news.

Bad news first: The webinar was oversubscribed so, despite pre-registering a week ahead of time, I got locked out. The good news: I was able to obtain the audio and slides, and “listen in” after the fact. (Friendly suggestion to the good folks at Open Water Source: Please don’t overbook your webinars. I realize they’re free, but still…)

The even-better news: The webinar was excellent. Though, somewhat different than I expected. A few weeks ago a friend sent me a whitepaper authored by Dr. Attia, entitled “Swimming in the Intensive Care Unit.” The gist of the paper is that a marathon swim is enormously stressful on the body, producing physiological symptoms not unlike those of a patient in the ICU with a traumatic injury. Therefore, proper nutrition is critically important to the success of such an endeavor. His recommendations boiled down, interestingly, to almost exactly what I had discovered on my own:

  • The purpose of feeding during a swim is to supplement your body’s other energy sources (glycogen and fat), not to replace every single calorie you burn.


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